Proposal:UQ sports history linkage/application

eHistory and the Australian Paralympic Movement: A New Relationship between Scholars, Practitioners, and the Community.


The Sydney Games in 2000 was a turning point for the Australian Paralympic movement, with unprecedented attendance levels of 90,000 at both opening and closing ceremonies, a total of a million spectators, free-to-air television coverage, and a squad of 10,000 community volunteers (Cashman and Darcy 2008). In the three Games since, the Paralympics has grown significantly in its participation base, complexity, number of events, and public profile. This has culminated in the recent 2012 Games, where the movement stood with the Olympics as never before, with worldwide media coverage and more than 4000 athletes from 164 teams in 21 sports -- of whom 161 Australian athletes competed in 13 sports. In sheer numbers, the Paralympic Games now approach their Olympic cousins' 10,500 athletes, 204 teams, and 26 sports. London's Paralympics was a showcase of Australian disability athletes who excelled in gold-medal and overall tallies, coming fifth in both, outshining relative Olympic achievements.

While the history of the Australian Olympic movement is widely documented by scholars and journalists, there is almost no documentation on the history of the Australian Paralympics; even on a global scale, there is little scholarship on the Paralympic movement. This belies the significance of the movement in terms of its power to change public perceptions and attitudes towards disability, to influence public policy, and not least on the personal level, to empower disabled people as full participants in society. We are faced with the challenge of documenting for the first time the history of this movement in all of its cultural, social, technical, political complexities, and potent symbolism.

Disabled sport in Australia involves the interaction of individuals, local community organisations, the Paralympic movement, commercial sponsors, broadcasters, and politicians at all levels. To this multilayered picture the Internet can now be added as a powerful new dimension, bringing social media, online news, and the world's most popular knowledge-based brand name, Wikipedia, with more than 16,000 hits a second globally on its sites. As a vehicle for digital history, the Internet has the potential to reshape historical discourse: the critical advantages are its instant accessibility and ability to be modified and updated, and to connect with other online representations of the past.

This project will combine the expertise and knowledge of three organisations -- the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC), Wikimedia Australia, and the University of Queensland (UQ) -- to create a new relationship between historical scholarship, disability sport, and the Australian community. The APC was established in 1990 as the peak national body for disability sport, and has built a significant historical archive and a strong network of institutional links with the National Library of Australia, the National Film and Sound Archives, and the National Sports Information Centre. Wikimedia Australia was established in 2008 as the affiliated chapter of the worldwide Wikimedia movement that has produced 23 million volunteer-authored Wikipedia articles in over 285 languages, and is visited by more than 475 million people every month, making it one of the most popular sites in the world. The chapter has the capacity to organise and spearhead the efforts of volunteer writers and editors to reflect increasing historical knowledge about disabled sport. Both POs will collaborate with two of Australia's leading sport historians -- A/Prof. Murray Phillips and Dr Gary Osmond at UQ -- to produce a trimodal history of Australian disability sport.

The aim of the project is to create three interlinked but different forms of the history of Australian disability sport, examining its origins and development, and the participation of the athletes on the international stage -- including the Paralympic Games, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games, and World Championships. This will be achieved in three parallel modes:

  • A hard-copy book to serve as a major piece of scholarship commemorating six decades of Australian disability sport.
  • An e-history -- based initially on the narrative of the hard-copy book -- but explicitly hyperlinked to other modes of representation such as museum sites, oral histories, and film footage, and modifiable as the history of the movement evolves; the e-history will be capable of continual updating and will serve as a gateway to other resources. It is likely to gain global reach and a wide, committed readership attracted to the accessibility of the diverse multimodal material;
  • A program of creating and improving articles on the English Wikipedia to provide encyclopedic levels of detail on individual athletes, coaches, administrators, events, and the complex and developing system of disability classifications, under the terms of Wikipedia's content policies. The result will be a large number of high-quality Wikipedia articles - where presently the topic is not well represented - with their emphasis on suppressed narrative voice. The articles will accord with the site's well-honed protocols for sourcing and verification in a worldwide, online encyclopedic context, and its emphasis on free content.

The roots of disability sport lie in the Second World War, with an unprecedented number of spinal-cord injuries from the physical amplification of warfare through technology. Before sport was introduced as a form of rehabilitation for these injuries in the 1940s, 80% of paraplegic and quadriplegics died within three years (Anderson, 2003). In the post-war period, the pioneering work of Ludwig Guttmann, founder of the international Paralympic movement, introduced and promoted sport in rehabilitation. Guttmann's innovations changed the lives of spinal-cord injury patients throughout the world. His work is at least partly credited for a contemporary rate of survival of more than 90%; paralysis is now considered to be a manageable, not a fatal, condition (Donovon, 2007). One Australian example is telling: Daphne Ceeney, a young 17-year-old woman, was paralysed from a horse accident in 1951 and spoke of the despair and depression she faced (Smith, 2011). Through hospital-organised sport, then through emerging community clubs, and later state- and nationally supported institutions, she reshaped her life, becoming Australia's first female Paralympian and gold medallist. Ceeney is now a contemporary icon of the Australian Paralympic movement, which was formally incorporated in 1990.

The history of the international Paralympic movement has a modest body of literature: Bailey (2008), Brittain (2010), and Howe (2008) have presented perceptive historical reflections on disability sport in the context of global sport; Scruton (1998), as secretary of the founding movement for disability sport, is an insider's chronological account of the international movement. Only one country, the UK, has a detailed and meticulous national history (Brittain 2012). The Australian story is chronicled in isolated, state-based organisational histories (Epstein 2002; Lockwood and Lockwood 2007; Smith 2011) and in a detailed analysis of the Sydney 2000 Paralympics Benchmark Games (Cashman and Darcy's 2008). Benchmark Games is an insightful case study of the infrastructure, volunteer commitment, media analysis, and legacy of the Sydney Paralympics. Benchmark Games and the international literature investigate conceptual issues, offer theoretical analysis and address the global context of the Paralympic movement providing an important foundational framework for the story of Australian disability sport. The literature has at times provided valuable treatment of isolated events and other paralympics topics; but this only points to the need for an in-depth, comprehensive scholastic view of the Australian Paralympic movement.

The literature on Paralympic history is almost entirely conveyed in the traditional form of hard-copy books, which remains the conventional forum for historical scholarship; however, the digital revolution is challenging their role. As Lyons (2011, p. 207) argues: 'In the space of a few years, books have been cut from their paper moorings. The electronic age has changed them more fundamentally than the invention of codex and the advent of printing'. The most significant change is the development of electronic history books -- what we refer to in this project as e-history; this phenomenon is closely aligned with the traditional book, but is freely available online to unlimited readerships. It has flexibility through the ability to modify content, and to provide a gateway to other representations of the past found in films, monuments, museums, oral histories, and photographs, creating multifaceted, sensorial and immersive historical experiences. E-history has the potential to integrate past representations of sport into a written narrative through photographs (Kluggman and Osmond 2013; Osmond 2010), film and video (Osmond and Phillips 2011; Phillips 2008), memorials and monuments (Phillips, O'Neill and Osmond 2007), material culture (Boorish and Phillips 2012) and museums (Phillips 2012).

Paralleling the development of e-history is the emergence of the online, interactive encyclopedia, Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia was created in 2001, and within just a few years emerged as a key source for public access to historical information. As a consequence, Wikipedia has been subjected to considerable scrutiny by the academic community, and there has been a shift from initial vehement rejection to critical appraisal. After weighing up the strengths and weaknesses of Wikipedia, American historian Roy Rosenzweig (2006) recommends to his colleagues that there is far more to be gained by engaging with it than ignoring it. This project embraces Rosenzweig's advice and actively engages Wikipedia as a forum for developing a community of practice that generates knowledge about the history of Australian disability sport. The strength of Wikipedia is unlimited capacity for providing detailed information about people, events, and issues connected with Australian disability sport.


Why the research is significant and how it addresses an important problem?

By the ABS definitions, nearly seven million Australians have a disability. This figure is staggering and confronting, but maybe overestimated because it includes those with a long term health condition. Moreover, the statistics prevent a clear understanding of the proportions of the classifications of disabilities - profound, severe, modest and mild - as they exist in Australian society. Allowing for these anomolies, more than two-thirds of those classified as disabled participate in sport and physical recreation (ABS). Disability sport is deeply grounded in Australian society. Clubs at local, state, and national levels promote disability sport by providing integrated opportunities and separate competitions. The possibilities range from recreational contests to national competitions in a wide array of sports, through to international championships in individual and team sports to the pinnacle of international competition, the Paralympic Games.

The massive growth in disability sport over the past 60 years has been fostered and supported by corporate sponsors, state and territory governments, and nationally by the ASC, the AIS, national sport federations, and the partner organisation, the APC. All of these institutions recognise the role of sport in rehabilitation, its part in building sustainable and inclusive communities, and the importance of sporting role models for people with disabilities. It is ironic, then, that this burgeoning phenomenon has no cohesive, overarching scholarly narrative. The significance of this Linkage project is that it will provide such a narrative, harnessing communications technology in new ways to link scholars, sport practitioners, and skilled online editors in a concerted program to document the history of Australian disability sport -- both as it has evolved and as it will continue to develop.

Disability sport changes perceptions about disability. As Brittain argues, disability sport has the power to 'remove the cloak of near invisibility cast over it [disability] by the rest of society and to highlight the fact that people with disabilities were capable of amazing feats, just like anyone else within society'. (Brittain 2011, 92-93). As the CEO of the British Paralympic Association argued of the London event, 'engaging young people in the Paralympics ... had an impact on their attitudes towards disability' ( Here lies the power of community engagement through online history.

The contributions of disability sport to Australian society are underpinned by the strengthening of the personal identity of those with disabilities, as individuals themselves master athletic skills. However, there is a wider impact: the collective identity of both participants and those they represent in sport competitions of increasingly high profile is an important part of integrating people with disability into the able-bodied world. This has been and will continue to be one of the keys to fostering acceptance by the community at large, as disability is normalised through the global exposure of the athletes -- at its most powerful through widely viewed events such as the Paralympics. But to do justice to the achievements of disability sport in Australia and to ensure its place in the national culture requires a public identity that can only properly be achieved through historical documentation.

Sport is a platform for practical and policy initiatives that enhance domestic conditions, access to travel, and workforce participation, allowing disabled people to enjoy healthy, productive, and fulfilling lives. By building sustainable and inclusive communities in these ways, the project will contribute to the National Research Priority of Promoting and maintaining good health, goal of 'Strengthening Australia's social and economic fabric'.

The unique, multimodal structure of the project will have an impact well beyond the narrative of Australian disability sport. The tripartite structure -- traditional history, e-history, and Wikipedia content -- is likely to be taken up as a model for documenting the histories of both disabled and able-bodied sport in other countries. Our outputs will advance the notion that historical scholarship can involve a combination of multimodal expression, community contribution, and professional expertise.

How the aims and concepts are novel and innovative?

Hyperlinking from the written word to other 'story spaces'

The project will introduce a new approach to a major form of electronic information navigation: hyperlinking. E-history, and the internet itself, are still at relatively young stages of development, and the notion of hyperlinking from an item on one page to another page or website has been the subject of little conceptual and practical development. Raw linking to other pages is the norm, in the expectation that this per se will create a tree of knowledge. While this does achieve basic information networking, the entry of historical scholarship to the digital world opens up new possibilities for developing a much more sophisticated approach to hyperlinking, and through this a more intensive relationship between professional history and a wide range of readers. Systemic techniques for selecting link targets and applying curatorial approaches to the provision of meta-information will be central to the innovation. In telling the story of Australian disability sport for the time through an e-history narrative, we will hyperlink to additional historical experiences, usually only accessed in other pedagogical and cultural spaces.

Specific examples of the innovation.

The development of sporting wheelchairs is an example of the expansive possibilities of the scholastic approach we will develop to hyperlinking -- of how e-history could traverse disciplinary boundaries between visual culture studies, film and media studies, museology, material culture studies, and oral history, to generate sensorial and immersive historical experiences about Australian disability sport. While a hard-copy book might include a single photograph of a sporting wheelchair, an online display could show wheelchairs evolved from the original, clumsy, and dangerous hospital chairs to the specialised, biomechanically engineered machines of the contemporary era. Online displays would enable viewers to investigate chairs from different eras in their sporting contexts and to appreciate the specific innovations and advances in chair design for each sport. Representations of wheelchairs in online museums would be complemented with archival footage of disability sport. Readers would be provided with hyperlinks to edited footage that demonstrate the types of chairs used in the Paralympics, showing the ways in which design was constantly undergoing development, invariably effecting medals won and lost.

In this sense, readers will become witnesses to material culture and archival footage, something unattainable in a hard-copy book. Understanding how the wheelchair developed would be further enhanced by oral histories of Paralympians. While oral histories need to be filtered for historical inaccuracies (e.g. the vagaries of memory and potential biases in the interviewing process), they are powerful because they can capture colour, emotion and feeling, in this case associated with the evolution of the wheelchair. Disability athletes have orally discussed the centrality of wheelchairs to athletic success, the national rivalry associated with advances in design, and their wonder at the transformation of wheelchairs from what were primarily modes of transport to high-tech sporting equipment, designed exclusively for competition. While a written narrative might include limited excerpts of these opinions, hyperlinking to oral histories can give the reader opportunities to explore in great detail perceptions of wheelchair technology from a cross-section of Paralympians spanning six decades of international competition.

Creating a new 'community of practice'

The American historian, Roy Rosenzweig, poses the question: 'Can the wiki way foster the collaborative creation of historical knowledge?' (2006, p. 143). In a second innovation, Wikipedia dimension of the project will answer Rosenzweig's question affirmatively by creating a bridge between two very different intellectual worlds: the expertise of the historical craft and the efforts of skilled Australian volunteer writers and editors on what has become the world's most significant knowledge website. This will be achieved by bringing the scholars and the online editors together at key points in the project for training, organisation and planning of article creation and improvement, developing ways of translating into Wikipedia's linguistic registers and formats the CIs' scholarship as it unfolds in the book and the e-history -- including their textual narrative and other modes of meaning such as images and videos. It will be a 21st-century echo of the public history movement of the early 20th century, in which amateur historians collaborated with professional researchers.

One of the core policies of Wikipedia is that knowledge be created through collaboration by online editors. In practice, this is supervised by a tightly knit and maturing community that philosophically supports 'the wisdom of the crowd' view of knowledge creation (O'Sullivan 2009). Wikipedia promotes personal and professional engagement by experts and non-experts, who often work side by side for the reward of seeing their work gain enormous and authoritative exposure on the internet. The site advocates collaboration through a process of creating and editing pages according to a set of elaborate quality control guidelines (Reagle 2010).

Unlike either hard-copy book or e-history, Wikipedia hosts the continual evolution of huge numbers of separate article topics. No original research is permitted, more as a strong tendency than a hard-and-fast rule, since it is not possible to write about what reliable external sources say without some form of originality, even in the form of a relatively distant narrative voice. Knowledge creation on the wiki is an iterative process in which multitudes of articles can branch into further articles of ever-increasing depth and detail. If knowledge on Wikipedia is particalised, the particles can be connected into cohesive wholes, and it is this splintering of knowledge and its coalescence into systems of categorisation and navigation around the site that is part of the genius of the concept as it has grown naturally over the past 11 years. The advantages of Wikipedia for documenting the continually evolving story of Australian disability sport are its potential to keep telling that story, updating facts and incorporating new source material as it comes to light.

These structures contrast strongly with traditional historical practices and outputs. As Munslow (2003) argues, historians are 'not herd animals' -- their practice is usually a solitary and individualistic craft, investigating the evidence and sources, planning and developing their arguments, typically based implicitly and explicitly on theory, and writing original historical narratives. One of their key roles is to use their scholastic expertise to interpret and judge primary sources for the reader, whereas Wikipedia doesn't document the truth, but what reliable sources say about the truth -- a critical and valuable difference between Wikipedia and both hard-copy and e-history dimensions. Working in a multimodal social and intellectual framework for historical knowledge production is likely to take the traditional scholars out of their comfort zone: this will be an important part of the new community of practice.


The project will have three interconnected phases: the first is the research and writing of the narrative of the hard copy book; the second is the development of the e-history; the third is the creation and development of Wikipedia content material.

Phase one (years 1 and 2) will comprise the research and writing of the hard copy book. Archival research will be conducted at state and national institutions (APC, National and State Sporting Disability Organisations; NLA and State Libraries; NFSA, NSIC and NSM) and in the personal collections of Paralympians. With an appreciation of the politics of archival research and knowledge preservation (Hamilton 2002), a broad range of written documents, photographic evidence and filmic representations will be collected to form the basis of a scholastic history that engages with the multiple representations of the sporting past in the present (de Groot 2009). Archival research will be complemented with new interview material, gathered face-to-face where possible, or online or by phone, from administrators, athletes and coaches, and with the oral histories already recorded by the NLA. In line with current scholarship, oral history is used less to recover facts about the past, but more to investigate how memories of the past are recovered in the present, expressing recollections of the feelings, emotions and experiences associated with disability sport (Perks and Thomson 2006).

The theoretical framework linking research, analysis and writing in the historical narrative will be the concept of ableism. Ableism, defined as "discrimination in favour of the non-disabled and against people with disabilities" (Brittain 2008: 56), has historically resulted in the devaluation of people with disabilities, social segregation and limited life and sporting opportunities. Under this framework, the narrative will explore the degree to which sport has provided an avenue to challenge and disrupt ableism at the same time as societal perceptions and practices have transitioned from medical, to social and biosocial models of disability. Employing ableism will require both CIs in the e-history, as able-bodied writers, to acknowledge the complexity of authoring historical narratives (Booth 2005; Phillips 2006; Pringle and Phillips 2012). This combination of research, analysis and theory will produce a scholarly history of Australian disability sport, significantly contributing to the Paralympic movement as a world-wide phenomenon.

Phase two (years 2 and 3) will comprise the creation of the e-history. The foundation of the e-history is the narrative created for the hard-copy book, but extensively hyperlinked to carefully selected and edited photographs, oral histories, film footage and material culture. This will involve CI Osmond's expertise in both cultural history and digital history techniques.

We will use Munslow's (2007) idea of historical 'story spaces' as a foundation, analysing the unique, defining and complex cultural, personal and social dynamics generated by Australian disability sport. The key advantage of Munslow's notions here will be in our development of a framework for unpacking how all of the different modes and forms -- conceived as story spaces -- can be analysed and then coordinated to provide a cohesive history. Our analyses will form the basis of a curatorial approach to hyperlinking between these very different story spaces, involving the integration of two techniques:

  • selection, in which we will develop methods of focusing the reader on the parts of a link-target that are most relevant to the original narrative (for example, by editing down an oral history or video segement); and
  • the provision of meta-information as part of the linking process to convey the significance of the targeted material to the narrrative, make the reader aware of possible nuances and angles that could influence their interpretation, and flag the relative importance of meanings (for example, which photographs of artefacts in a museum collection are the most relevant to the e-history narrative).

Our techniques of knowledge integration will include identifying, editing and hyperlinking the audio-visual materials and the Wikipedia pages into the written narrative of the e-history to create sensorial and immersive historical experiences about Australian disability sport.

Phase three (years 2 and 3) will be the creation of Wikipedia articles. To test the idea of combining the expertise of historians with the volunteer labour of Wikipedians, a small pilot project was carried out in early 2012. At a workshop, experienced Wikipedians discussed with the Linkage team the history of Australian disability sport. Provided with original documents from the early period of Australia's involvement in international disability sport, and expertise from Drs Phillips and Osmond, three APC staff including PI Naar, and ten Wikipedians including PI Vandenberg and two members of the chapter board. The workshop produced a series of Wikipedia pages on Australian involvement at international sport events. What this workshop demonstrated was that it is very productive to combine contributions from historians and Wikipedians to create valuable, accessible historical knowledge about Australian disability sport.

The key identities, events and issues to be recorded in Wikipedia will emerge from the hard-copy history. The Wikipedia pages will develop encyclopaedic levels of knowledge that can exceed the detail found in the hard copy and e-history books. This labour-intensive process, which will be conducted according to Wikipedia's policies, which require a more constrained role for the narrative voice. To train and coordinate the efforts of volunteer writers and editors, we will run a series of collaborative workshops organised by partner organisations Wikimedia Australia and the APC, and UQ. At six workshops over years 2 and 3, UQ will prepare the topics, themes and identities from the narrative of the hard-copy history, the APC will ensure the relevant materials are available on a digital platform accessible for Wikipedians, and Wikimedia Australia will recruit volunteers, provide training to develop editorials skills, and ensure the generation of content on the English Wikipedia.

Further outputs during the project: in addition to the book and e-hisotry, will include scholarly articles by A/Prof Phillips and Dr Osmond on 'South Africa, the Paralympics and Australian Athletes', 'Abelism and Sport: The Australian Paralympic Experience', 'A History of the Politics of Australian Disability Sport', 'Wikipedia and Sport History: A Critique', and 'e-History: Challenges and Opportunities' to be submitted to national and international history journals. There will be collaborations with A/Prof Jobling on 'oral history and disability sport', with Sean Tweedy on a 'history of classification and disability sport' and with Emma Beckman on 'intellectual disability classification' to be submitted to international sport history and sociology journals. A mobile-device application will be developed for both easy access to the e-history and Wikipedia pages, and communication through Twitter and Facebook, which will connect contemporary national and international events to the e-history of Australian disability sport; this is likely to be ready for the 2016 Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro.

Training: The training aspect of this project will focus on a PhD student, who will be based at UQ and will work with CIs Phillips and Osmond specifically in the Wikipedia dimension of the project. The doctoral project will investigate the relationship between Australian sport, with disability sport as a focal point, and the related history, the role of Wikipedia and its Australian contributors, and other forms of knowledge production, and will be licenced CC BY or CC BY SA. The student will gain further training through contributing to project management by participating in the workshops, communicating regularly with members of both POs, contributing to data collection/analysis/synthesis, and collaborating on research papers.


UQ, and specifically the School of Human Movement Studies (SHMS), provide outstanding research environments for this project in three ways. Firstly, UQ has a strong and internationally focussed research culture, and is currently ranked in the top 1% of world universities in three international ranking systems. With an ERA result of 4 for History, in which the CIs conduct their research, UQ is achieving "above world standard". The SHMS is regarded as the leading Australian school in in its field, with a track record of excellence in interdisciplinary research, strengths in national competitive grants and tenders, and in attracting and supporting HRD students. Research within the school is supported by systems to manage ethics, budgets, data storage, reporting schedules, HRD milestones, workshop management, IT support, and media relations. SHMS has a research and teaching speciality in paralympic and disability studies. In addition to the UQ team, Emeritus A/Prof Ian Jobling, and Drs Sean Tweedy and Emma Beckman, have expertise in disability sport. A/Prof Jobling has conducted oral history with identities in the Australian Paralympic movement over the past two years for the NLA, and Drs Tweedy and Beckman are international classifiers of athletes for the International Paralympic Committee. Our advances will be integrated into the school's teaching curriculum, and the three colleagues will be collaborators in series of scholarly publications. The project will also be highly relevant to UQ's School of English, Media Studies and Art History, which has a group of active scholars who are exploring the intersection between historical scholarship and the internet, hosting national and international conferences on digital humanities. Throughout their candidature, the student will access UQ’s RAD Career Advantage Program.

Dissemination. In addition to the three output modes of the project, we will publish scholarly articles in high-impact journals such as Australian Historical Studies and Rethinking History, and will deliver papers at highly ranked conferences such as NASSH and AHSC, which will explore specific theoretical issues and historical issues in greater detail than will be appropriate in the book or the e-history. The CIs will establish the formation of an international research network at SHMS around disability sport history and digital humanities – an important link for presenting material, communicating to broader audiences, and disseminating results from the project through seminars, conferences, and publications. Copyright for the hard-copy book and the e-history will be by negotiation with the publisher; we will seek to arrange for the e-history to be licenced as open-source material, either through "green" or "gold" methods, or by arranging for the material to become freely licenced at an agreed time after the launch of the e-history. Wikipedia's articles will be uploaded under the CC BY SA or similar licences. The source code for the app will be open source, and will provide free content on mobile devices wherever possible.


The Australian Paralympic Committee, as the peak national organisation of Paralympic sport in Australia, works closely with the Australian Sports Commission, the Australian Institute of Sport and sport federations to create an optimal environment for Australian disability athletes. As explained in the mission statement of the APC’s Corporate Strategy (2009–13), its vision is "to be a leader in Paralympic sport internationally and a leader in Australian sport". The Linkage project will be central to this mission, which it believes will bring the history and identity of the APC to the Australian public and the international disability community. The APC is keen for its national and international 'story' be expressed in the three complementary modes, comprising scholarship, input from disabled sportspeople, and the community, with wide accessibility. The PO anticipates that the project will set the standard for other national and international sporting organisations to harness new digital technologies to attract supporters to their sports.

The cash contributions from the APC of $20,000 p.a. will fund part of the PhD stipend, and a part-time research assistant who will work with PI Naar, the APC's specialist in information management to gather, organise and catalogue archival material and liaise with other Australian archival, sporting, and cultural institutions in the search for high-value archival materials not already in the PO's possession. The APC’s in-kind support of $30,678 p.a. will go to 0.2 PI Naar's time and effort will catalogue and digitally store the extensive archival material: written documents from the birth of disability sport through to contemporary times; audiovisual resources (including 45,000 photographs, 1100 video items and historical films); and material culture donated by Paralympians, including equipment and medals. This archival work – some of it to identify and gather what the PO has identified as dispersed around the Australian community – will be a major contribution by the PO to the hard-copy book, e-history and the Wikipedia articles. The APC will work closely with the PhD student in this task, and in facilitating the transition of the narrative of the hard copy book to the e-history with hyperlinks to additional historical experiences.

Wikimedia Australia is an independent, not-for-profit organisation, recognised as an official chapter by the global Wikimedia Foundation, based in San Francisco. WMAU's primary aim is to promote access to free cultural works, especially Australian educational works and those about Australia's history, culture, and built and natural environments. The chapter has already established a strong track-record in work with archives, museums, and libraries, and has held negotiations with such organisations as the ABC on releasing online tranches of historical and cultural material under free licences. The PO organises events that promote the participation of Australians in this aim, in particular on the Foundation's 289 wiki sites, and to increase public awareness of those sites among Australians. The chapter is most strongly connected with the English Wikipedia, the site in which articles related to Australian Paralympics are most well developed, and which alone accounts for more than a third of the edits and visits to Foundation sites. WMAU is funded both by Australian donors and, through the Foundation, by a global network of huge numbers of donors; most donors are individuals who gift modest amounts in thanks for their experiences on the Foundation's sites, which gain some 16,000 hits a second, as the fifth most popular group of sites on the internet, after Google, Facebook, YouTube, and Yahoo. While the WMAU is entirely run by volunteers, it is likely to recruit its first employee in 2013, who will support the chapter's committee in its managerial and coordination roles.

The goals of the Linkage project are directly aligned with those of WMAU, in producing the first major scholastic work on Australian disability sport, particularly in the multimodal innovations that will create close connections between a traditional book, an e-history, and the English Wikipedia. The chapter believes the project is likely to be a forerunner to similar collaborations in the global Wikimedia movement; it is also keen that any advances in hyperlinking techniques from a curatorial perspective be considered for wider use in Foundation sites. The PO will provide an annual cash contribution of $45,308 p.a., comprising the part-funding for the PhD stipend, funding for one of the part-time research assistants, and for six day-long workshops in a range of capital cities for experienced Wikipedia editors to provide training in advanced research and editing skills; this will be to ensure the creation and improvement of high-quality Wikipedia articles on topics related to Australian disability sport. The PO's cash contribution includes the technical development of the e-history and a mobile-device application. Because the chapter is volunteer-run, it will not provide "in-kind" contributions according to the usual definition. However, its members and other Australian volunteers who will assist in the writing and editing of the articles, and the training of contributors at the workshops, will represent a substantial in-kind contribution.

Collaboration. The collaboration has extended to embrace the APC and WMAU in a small pilot project in early 2012 which overwhelmingly demonstrated the benefits of combining a wide range of skill sets and areas of knowledge to create accessible knowledge. This project will extend this arrangement by formally linking three key organisations -- UQ, APC and WMAU -- to create a new community of practice dedicated to Australian disability sport. The management structure will consist of monthly Skype meetings involving CIs, POs and research assistants. In the second and third years, three 'face to face' meetings per annum, following the Wikipedia workshops, will review progress and strategies on all aspects of the project. The focal points of meetings will change as the project matures, with tasks shifting from research organisation and management in the early stages, to the specific requirements of writing the hard-copy book and the creation of the e-history, to the effectiveness of the workshops.

The prospects for longer-term collaboration between UQ, APC and WMAU will be strengthened by extending the scope of SHMH's Centre for Olympic Studies into a new Centre for Olympic and Paralympic Studies, which be the first centre of this type in the world. This is likely to become international research network on disability sport history, initially through panel presentations at key international and Australian conferences, and then through the journals these societies publish.


CI Phillips (UQ) will be primarily responsible for writing and editing the historical narrative for both the hard-copy book and the e-history. He will collaborate with PIs Naar and Vandenberg in generating digital resources and running the Wikipedia workshops.

CI Osmond (UQ) will be primarily responsible for the e-history and contributing to the Wikipedia workshops. He will collaborate with CI Phillips on the e-history and in working with non-written historical representations of the past, in particular in analysing story spaces.

PI Naar (APC) will work closely with one of the research assistants to assess, electronically store, and catalogue the relevant parts of the APC's sizeable archives, and in community outreach to expand those archives. He will liaise with NFSA, NLA,NSIC, NSM to expand their holdings of disability sport and provide access to audiovisual material, material culture and oral histories for the e-history, and will create a community of contributors to the history project from Paralympians, Wikipedians, staff from archival, film and library institutions, and alumni from the APC.

John Vandenberg (WMAU) will collaborate with UQ and the APC by organising experienced Wikipedians to contribute to the project, and the training workshops of Wikipedians.

Research assistant 1 will be located at UQ. S/he will organise archival material crucial to the preparation of the book and the e-history.

Research assistant 2 will have expertise in Wikipedia editing and the application of its policies. S/he will: coordinate the participation of Australian Wikipedia volunteers who will contribute to the topic; deal with copyright issues; provide the digital source material for the creation and improvement of the Wikipedia articles; and provide other assistance to online editors as necessary, and will liaise with WMAU on planning and progress.

Research assistant 3 will be located in Sydney and will provide essential assistance to PI Naar at the APC in archival collection, maintenance, uploading, and cataloguing.


Anderson, Julie. 2003. "'Turned into Taxpayers': paraplegia, rehabilitation and sport at Stoke Mandeville, 1944-56." Journal of Contemporary History no. 38 (3):461-475.

Bailey, Steve. 2008. Athlete First: A History of the Paralympic Movement. 41 vols. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.

Brittain, Ian. 2010. The Paralympic Games Explained. London: Routledge.

———. 2012. From Stoke-Mandeville to Stratford: A History of the Summer Paralympic Game. Illinois: Common Ground.

Cashman, Richard, and Simon Darcy. 2008. Benchmark Games. Sydney: Walla Walla Press.

Donovan, William H. 2007. "Donald Munro Lecture: Spinal Cord Injury - Past, Present, and Future." The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine no. 30 (2):85-100.

Epstein, Vicki. 2002. Step by Step We Conquer: The Story of Queensland's Sporting Wheelies and Disabled Association. Southport: Keeaira Press.

Howe, David P. 2008. The Cultural Politics of the Paralympic Movement: Through an Anthropological Lens. London: Routledge.

Lockwood, Richard, and Anne Lockwood. 2007. Rolling Back the Years: A History of Wheelchair Sport in Western Australia. Perth: Wheelchair Sport WA Inc.

Lyons, Martin. 2011. Books: A Living History. New York: J. Paul Getty Museum.

Munslow, Alun. 2003. The New History. Harlow: Pearson.

———. 2007. Narrative and History, Theory and History. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

O'Sullivan, Dan. 2009. Wikipedia: A New Community of Practice? Farnham: Ashgate.

Osmond, Gary. 2008. "Reflecting Materiality: Reading Sport History through the Lens." Rethinking History no. 12 (2):339-360.

Osmond, Gary, Murray G Phillips, and Mark O'Neill. 2006. "'Putting up your Dukes': Statues, Social Memory and Duke Kahanamoku." The International Journal of the History of Sport no. 23 (1):82-103.

Osmond, Gary, and Murray G. Phillips. 2010. "Sources." In Routledge Companion to Sport History, edited by John Nauright and Steven W Pope, 34-50. London.

———. 2011a. "Enveloping the Past: Sport Stamps, Visuality and Museums." The International Journal of Sport History no. 28 (8-9):1138-1155.

———. 2011b. "Reading Salute: Filmic Representations of Sports History." The International Journal of the History of Sport no. 28 (10):1463-1477.

Phillips, Murray G. 2008. "An Athletic Clio: Sport History and Television History." Rethinking History no. 12 (3):399-416.

———. 2009. Swimming Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Phillips, Murray G, Mark E O'Neill, and Gary Osmond. 2007. "Broadening Horizons in Sport History: Films, Photographs and Monuments." Journal of Sport History no. 34 (2):401-421.

Phillips, Murray G. 2012. Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Hall of Fame. New York: Routledge.

Phillips, Murray G., and Gary Osmond. 2009. "Dawn! Sport, History and Film." The International Journal of the History of Sport no. 26 (14):2126-2143.

Rosenzweig, Roy. 2006. "Can History be an Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past." Journal of American History no. 93 (1):117-146.

Scruton, Joan. 1998. Stoke Mandeville: Road to the Paralympics. Aylesbury: The Peterhouse Press. Smith, Jeanette. 2011. Push Strong: Celebrating Fifty Years of Wheelchair Sports New South Wales 1961-2011. Sydney: Playright.


F13.2. Recent significant publications (2007 onwards)

Scholarly books
  1. Gary Osmond and Murray G. Phillips (eds.), Sport History in the Digital Era. (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2013 (in press, accepted [date of email]).
  2. Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips (eds.), Critical Sport Histories (Champaign, ILL: Human Kinetics, 2013).
  3. Murray G. Phillips (ed), Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Sport (London: Routledge, 2012).Murray G. Phillips, Swimming Australia: A Cultural History of Swimming in Australia (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2009), 290 pp.
  4. Doune Macdonald, Sue Hooper and Murray G. Phillips (eds), Junior Sport Matters (Canberra: Australian Sports Commission, 2007), 150 pp.
Scholarly book chapters
  1. Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips, "Sport history, historiography and postmodern social theory: An introduction", in Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips (eds.), Critical Sport Histories (Champaign, ILL: Human Kinetics, 2013), 1-26.
  2. Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips, "Postmodern social theory and the art, practice and reading of history", in Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips (eds.), Critical Sport Histories (Champaign, ILL: Human Kinetics, 2013), 27-48.
  3. *Murray G. Phillips, "Historians in the Museum", in Murray G. Phillips (ed.), Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Sport (London: Routledge, 2012), 1-28.
  4. *Murray G. Phillips, "Conclusion", in Murray G. Phillips (ed.), Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Sport (London: Routledge, 2012), 249-257.
  5. *Gary Osmond and Murray G. Phillips, "Sources", in S.W. Pope and John Nauright (eds.), Routledge Companion to Sports History (London: Routledge, 2010), 24-50.
  6. John Nauright and Murray G. Phillips, "Us and them: Australian professional sport and resistance to North American ownership and marketing models", in John Nauright and Steven Pope (eds.), The New Sport Management Reader (London: Routledge, 2009), 265-275.
  7. Murray G. Phillips and Tara Magdalinski, "Sport in Australia", in B. Houlihan (ed.), Sport & Society: A Student Introduction (London: Sage, 2008), 492-512.
Refereed journal articles
  1. *Linda Borish and Murray G. Phillips, "Sport history as modes of expression: material culture and cultural spaces in sport and history", Rethinking History, Vol. 16, No. 4 (2012): 1-15.
  2. *Murray G. Phillips and Richard Tinning, "Not just 'a book on the wall': pedagogical work, museums and representing the sporting past", Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 16, No.1 (2011): 51-66.
  3. *Murray G. Phillips and Gary Osmond, "Enveloping the past: sport stamps, visuality and museums", The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 28, No. 8 (2011): 1138-1155.
  4. *Gary Osmond and Murray G. Phillips, "Reading Salute: filmic representations of sports history." International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 28, No. 10 (2011): 1463-1477.
  5. *Murray G. Phillips, "A historian in the museum: story spaces and Australia's sporting past", Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3 (2010): 396-408.
  6. Murray G. Phillips and Mark O'Neil, "Sport, film, and Australian cultural identity: reading Hero to a Nation", Sport History Review, Vol. 41, No. 1 (2010): 1-16.
  7. *Murray G. Phillips and Gary Osmond, "Filmic sports history: Dawn Fraser, swimming and national identity", International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 26, No. 14 (2009): 126-142.
  8. *Murray G. Phillips, "Public history and sport history: evaluating commissioned histories and historical documentaries." Journal of Sport History, Vol. 35, No. 3 (2008): 393-410.
  9. *Murray G. Phillips, "An athletic clio: sport history and television history." Rethinking History, Vol. 12, No. 3 (2008): 399-416.
  10. *Murray G. Phillips, Mark O'Neill, and Gary Osmond. "Broadening horizons in sport history: films, photographs and monuments." Journal of Sport History, Vol. 34, No. 2 (2007): 401-21.

F13.3. Ten career-best publications

  1. Murray G. Phillips, "Historians in the Museum", in Murray G. Phillips (ed.), Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Sport (London: Routledge, 2012), 1-28.
    This chapter demonstrates the unique, powerful and evocative ways that museums represent the past, encouraging and challenging sport historians to understand, engage and critique this form of popular, public history.
  2. Linda Borish and Murray G. Phillips, "Sport History as Modes of Expression: Material Culture and Cultural Spaces in Sport and History", Rethinking History, Vol. 16, No. 4 (2012): 1-15.
    The first major study of the relationship between sport, history, and material culture, which set the agenda for this new field, including an analysis of how these phenomena are linked.
  3. Murray G. Phillips, Swimming Australia: A Cultural History of Swimming in Australia (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2009).
    Commissioned by Swimming Australia, this history described the close relationships between swimming and Australian society from colonial times, lived out through popular culture and a unique physical infrastructure.
  4. Murray G. Phillips, "An athletic clio: sport history and television history." Rethinking History, Vol. 12, No. 3 (2008): 399-416.
    Applying contemporary philosophical debates to filmic sport history, this paper advocates for the value and relevance of documentaries and films as important representations of the sporting past.
  5. Murray G. Phillips (ed.), Deconstructing Sport History: A Postmodern Analysis (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2006).
    This reconceptualisation of the methodological, epistemological and ontological dimensions of sport history was awarded the prestigious North American Society of Sport History Book Prize: 10 editions, held in 469 libraries globally.
  6. Gary Osmond and Murray G. Phillips, "'Look at that kid crawling': Race, Myth and the 'Crawl' stroke", Australian Historical Studies 37, no. 127 (2006): 43-62.
    The cultural significance of how a Solomon Islander introduced freestyle into Australia -- probably a global innovation -- raising complex issues of race, cultural stereotypes, and the idealised story.
  7. Murray G. Phillips, "A Critical Appraisal of Narrative in Sport History: Reading the Surf Lifesaving Debate", Journal of Sport History 29, no 2 (2002): 25-40.
    Drawing on Hayden White's theory of history, this article examines contrasting and competing histories of surf lifesaving and provides a conceptual framework for broader evaluations of sport history.
  8. Murray G. Phillips, From Sidelines to Centre Field: A History of Sports Coaching in Australia (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2000).
    The first major history of sports coaching in Australia, showing the occupational and cultural complexities of coaching. Widely cited and held in 142 libraries.
  9. Murray G. Phillips, "From Suburban Football to International Spectacle: The Commodification of Rugby League in Australia, 1907-1995", Australian Historical Studies 29, no. 110 (1998): 27-48.
    A historical basis for understanding contemporary sport, in particular how rugby league has become big business; cited in the fields of football studies, sport sociology and history.
  10. Murray G. Phillips, "Sport, War and Gender Images: The Australian Sportsmen's Battalions and the First World War", The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 14 No. 1 (1997): 78-96.
    How masculinity, sport, and recruiting were inextricably linked during this period. "Best Article" for Journal of the History of Sport 1997.

F13.5. A statement on your most significant contributions to this research field of this Proposal.

My research has contributed to establishing sport history as a mainstream discipline at both national and international levels. I have made significant contributions in two areas: philosophical debates about the nature of history and sport history beyond the written word.


I was the first to look at the ontological, epistemological and methodological dimensions of sport history, addressing the debates in mainstream history that resulted from the literary, cultural and postmodern turns, reshaping these debates into critical reflections of sport history. Sport history as a field has tended to adopt conservative methodologies, while social research more broadly has been moving towards new and challenging approaches. Largely due to my contributions, philosophical debates are regular features on the sport history agenda at conferences and in key journals in ways that connect sport history with the broader international historical agenda. My work on surf lifesaving is a classic case study of how sport history can embrace the emerging theoretical debates in mainstream history. Here, I demonstrated how a philosophical analysis of historical practices can make sense of competing versions of the sporting past. This case study of surf lifesaving is an example of a larger dialogue that is challenging sport historians to reconceptualise their work. As a reviewer of sport history contends: myself and a colleague Douglas Booth: 'have encouraged researches to explicitly situate themselves within a theoretical paradigm; they have urged scholars to be more conscious of archives as sources of power, not simply evidence; they have promoted writers to reflect upon their research methods and their positions, as investigators, within that process; and they have emphasised the constructed and contingent nature of "findings"' (D. Adair, 'Australian Sport History', Sport in History, Vol. 29. No. 3 (2009):442). This philosophical discussion has opened the way to explore other representations of the sporting past which is a central feature of this proposal.


As part of this philosophical analysis, I have expanded the scope of sport historians beyond traditional examinations of the sporting past. Sport historians have predominantly analysed written sources including newspapers, sporting records and official documents; but my research has demonstrated the value in embracing sport history as represented in digital forms (see Sport History in the Digital Age (University of Illinois Press, forthcoming 2013), material culture (see the special edition of Rethinking History (Taylor and Francis, 2012), and museums (see Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Fames (Routledge, 2012). My recent work on the relationship between Wikipedia and history, presented as the Keynote Address at the North American Society for Sport History, typifies the expansion of sport history beyond its traditional parameters. Sport history, as a consequence of this broadening mandate, is far more integrated with digital history, cultural history and public history through connections with museums, film, monuments and the digital revolution, and is ideally positioned to engage with public commentary, analysis and debate about the role of history in contemporary sporting culture.


F12.2.1 Recent significant publications (2006 onwards)

Scholarly Books
  1. *Gary Osmond and Murray G. Phillips, eds. Sport History in the Digital Era. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. (In preparation: Contracts returned 28 Feb 2012; expected publication 2013).
  2. Matthew Klugman and Gary Osmond, Black Under the Jumper: The Photo that Changed a Nation. Melbourne: Slattery Media Group. (In preparation: Contracts returned 20 March 2012; expected publication 2013).
Scholarly Book Chapters
  1. *Gary Osmond, "Australasia", book chapter in Robert Edelman and Wayne Wilson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sports History, Oxford: Oxford University Press (in press: accepted 25 May 2012. Expected publication 2013).
  2. Gary Osmond, "Destabilising the past through photographs: Picturing Japanese sporting tours to Australia", book chapter in Richard Pringle and Murray G. Phillips (eds), Critical Sport Histories: Paradigms, Power and the Postmodern Turn, Morgantown, WV: FiT, University of West Virginia (in press: Accepted 12 April 2011. Expected publication 2013).
  3. Gary Osmond, "'Lively Little Visitors' and 'Peaceful Ambassadors': Reading Japanese Sporting Tours through the Australian Press -- 1926 to 1935", book chapter in Sean Brawley and Nick Guoth (eds), Australia's Asian Sporting Context, London: Routledge (in press: Accepted 9 May 2010. Expected publication 2012).
  4. *Gary Osmond & Murray G. Phillips, "Enveloping the Past: Sport Stamps, Visuality and Museums", book chapter in Mike Huggins and Mike O'Mahony (eds), The Visual in Sport, London: Routledge, 2012: 52-69.
  5. Mark E. O'Neill & Gary Osmond, "A Racehorse in the Museum: Phar Lap and the New Museology", In Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Fame, edited by Murray G. Phillips. London: Routledge, 2012: 29-48.
  6. *Gary Osmond & Murray G. Phillips, "Sources", In Routledge Companion to Sports History, edited by S. W. Pope and John Nauright. London: Routledge, 2010: 34-50.
Refereed Journal Articles
  1. *Gary Osmond, "Kwok Chun Hang, Swimmer: Researching Chinese Australian sport history through digitised newspapers", Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies (In press: accepted 16 April 2012. Expected publication 2013).
  2. Gary Osmond, "Clipped Histories: Representing the Cavill family of swimmers in historical feature articles", Journal of Australian Studies. Vol. 36, No. 3 (September 2012), 363-376.
  3. Gary Osmond, "'Lively Little Visitors' and 'Peaceful Ambassadors': Reading Japanese Sporting Tours through the Australian Press -- 1926 to 1935", Sport in Society. Vol 15, No. 4 (May 2012), 529-550.
  4. Gary Osmond, "Swimming her own Course: Agency in the professional swimming career of Alice Cavill", International Journal of the History of Sport. Vol 29, No. 3 (March 2012), 385-402.
  5. Gary Osmond, "The Surfing Tommy Tanna: Performing race at the Australian beach", The Journal of Pacific History. Vol 46, No. 2 (September 2011), 177-195.
  6. Gary Osmond, "Myth-making in Australian Sport History: Re-evaluating Duke Kahanamoku's contribution to surfing", Australian Historical Studies. Vol 42, No. 2 June 2011), 260-76.
  7. *Gary Osmond & Murray G. Phillips, "Reading Salute: Filmic Representations of Sports History", International Journal of the History of Sport. Vol 28, No. 10 (July 2011), 1,463-1,477.
  8. *Gary Osmond & Murray G. Phillips, "Enveloping the Past: Sport Stamps, Visuality and Museums", International Journal of the History of Sport. Vol 28, Nos. 8-9 (May-June 2011), 1,138-1,155.
  9. *Gary Osmond, "Shaping Lives: Statues as Biography". Sporting Traditions. Vol 27, No. 2 (November 2010), 101-111.
  10. *Gary Osmond, "Photographs, materiality and sport history: Peter Norman and the 1968 Mexico City Black Power Salute". Journal of Sport History. Vol 37, No. 1 (Spring 2010), 119-37.
  11. Gary Osmond, "'Honolulu Maori': Racial dimensions of Duke Kahanamoku's tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1914-1915". The New Zealand Journal of History. Vol 44, No. 1 April 2010, 22-34.
  12. Matthew Klugman & Gary Osmond, "That Picture: Nicky Winmar and the history of an image", Australian Aboriginal Studies. No. 2, 2009, 78-89.
  13. Murray G. Phillips & Gary Osmond, "Filmic Sports History: Dawn Fraser, swimming and national identity", International Journal of the History of Sport. Vol 26, No. 14 (November 2009), 2,126-2,142.
  14. Gary Osmond, "Forgetting Charlie and Tums Cavill: Social memory and Australian swimming history". Journal of Australian Studies. Vol 33, No. 1 (March 2009), 93-107.
  15. *Gary Osmond, "'Modest Monuments'?: Postage stamps, Duke Kahanamoku, and hierarchies of social memory." The Journal of Pacific History. 43, no. 3 (December 2008), 313-29.
  16. Gary Osmond & Marie-Louise McDermott, "Mixing Race: The Kong Sing brothers and Australian sport". Australian Historical Studies. Vol 39, No. 3 (September 2008), 338-55.
  17. Gary Osmond, "Reflecting Materiality: Reading Sport History through the Lens". Rethinking History. Vol 12, No 3 (September 2008), 339-60.
  18. *Murray G. Phillips, Mark E. O'Neill & Gary Osmond, "Broadening Horizons in Sport History: Films, Photographs and Monuments", Journal of Sport History. Vol 34, No. 2 (Summer 2007), 271-293.
  19. Gary Osmond & Murray G. Phillips, "'Look at that kid crawling': Race, Myth and the 'Crawl' Stroke", Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 37, No. 127, April 2006, 43-62.
  20. Gary Osmond, Murray G. Phillips & Mark O'Neill, "Putting Up Your Dukes: Statues, Social Memory and Duke Paoa Kahanamoku", International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 23, No. 1, February 2006, 82-103.
Refereed Conference Papers (published in full in the proceedings)

Not applicable

  1. *Stephen Townsend & Gary Osmond, Sport History on Wikipedia: An Australian Evaluation. Paper presented to the North American Society for Sport History (NASSH) 40th Annual Conference, Berkeley, California, 1-4 June 2012.
  2. *Gary Osmond, Search Terms <Kwok Chun Hang> -- The Internet, digitised newspapers, and Australian Chinese sport history. Paper presented to the Dragon Tails 2nd Australasian Conference on overseas Chinese history & heritage, Museum of Chinese Australian History, Melbourne, 11-13 November 2011.
  3. *Gary Osmond, The Elephant in the Room: Sport Historians and Uses of the Internet. Paper presented to the North American Society for Sport History (NASSH) 39th Annual Conference, Austin, Texas 27-30 May 2011 (session commentary).
  4. Gary Osmond, "Norman, Peter (1942-2006)", in Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice, eds. John Nauright and Charles Parrish (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2012), Vol. 1, 423.
  5. Gary Osmond, "Review of 'The Gay Games: A History', Caroline Symons." Sporting Traditions, Vol. 28, No. 1, May 2011, 116-18.
  6. Gary Osmond, "Review of 'The Metrosexual: Gender, Sexuality, and Sport', David Coad." Journal of Sport History, Vol. 36, No. 1, Spring 2009, 167-8.
  7. Gary Osmond, "Review of 'The Bondi Lifesaver: A History of an Australian Icon', Sean Brawley." Journal of Sport History. Vol 34, No. 2, Summer 2007, 302-3.
  8. Gary Osmond, "Review of 'In the Game: Gay Athletes and the Cult of Masculinity', Eric Anderson." Journal of Sport History, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 2006, 94-5.
  9. Gary Osmond, "Review of 'Race and Sport: The Struggle for Equality on and off the Field', Charles K. Ross (Ed)." Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 11, No. 4, November 2006, 432-35.
Discuss this page